Saturday, July 7, 2007

Implement the memmove() function. What is the difference between the memmove() and memcpy() function?

One more most frequently asked interview question!.

memmove() offers guaranteed behavior if the source and destination arguments overlap. memcpy() makes no such guarantee, and may therefore be more efficient to implement. It's always safer to use memmove().

Note that the prototype of memmove() is ...


void *memmove(void *dest, const void *src, size_t count);



Here is an implementation..



#include
#include

void *mymemmove(void *dest, const void *src, size_t count);

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
char *p1, *p2;
char *p3, *p4;
int size;

printf("\n--------------------------------\n");

/* ----------------------------------------
*
* CASE 1 : From (SRC) < To (DEST)
*
* +--+---------------------+--+
* | | | |
* +--+---------------------+--+
* ^ ^
* | |
* From To
*
* --------------------------------------- */

p1 = (char *) malloc(12);
memset(p1,12,'\0');
size=10;

strcpy(p1,"ABCDEFGHI");

p2 = p1 + 2;

printf("\n--------------------------------\n");
printf("\nFrom (before) = [%s]",p1);
printf("\nTo (before) = [%s]",p2);

mymemmove(p2,p1,size);

printf("\n\nFrom (after) = [%s]",p1);
printf("\nTo (after) = [%s]",p2);

printf("\n--------------------------------\n");



/* ----------------------------------------
*
* CASE 2 : From (SRC) > To (DEST)
*
* +--+---------------------+--+
* | | | |
* +--+---------------------+--+
* ^ ^
* | |
* To From
*
* --------------------------------------- */


p3 = (char *) malloc(12);
memset(p3,12,'\0');
p4 = p3 + 2;

strcpy(p4, "ABCDEFGHI");

printf("\nFrom (before) = [%s]",p4);
printf("\nTo (before) = [%s]",p3);

mymemmove(p3, p4, size);

printf("\n\nFrom (after) = [%s]",p4);
printf("\nTo (after) = [%s]",p3);

printf("\n--------------------------------\n");


/* ----------------------------------------
*
* CASE 3 : No overlap
*
* --------------------------------------- */

p1 = (char *) malloc(30);
memset(p1,30,'\0');
size=10;

strcpy(p1,"ABCDEFGHI");

p2 = p1 + 15;

printf("\n--------------------------------\n");
printf("\nFrom (before) = [%s]",p1);
printf("\nTo (before) = [%s]",p2);

mymemmove(p2,p1,size);

printf("\n\nFrom (after) = [%s]",p1);
printf("\nTo (after) = [%s]",p2);

printf("\n--------------------------------\n");

printf("\n\n");

return 0;
}



void *mymemmove(void *to, const void *from, size_t size)
{
unsigned char *p1;
const unsigned char *p2;

p1 = (unsigned char *) to;
p2 = (const unsigned char *) from;

p2 = p2 + size;

// Check if there is an overlap or not.
while (p2 != from && --p2 != to);


if (p2 != from)
{
// Overlap detected!

p2 = (const unsigned char *) from;
p2 = p2 + size;
p1 = p1 + size;

while (size-- != 0)
{
*--p1 = *--p2;
}
}
else
{
// No overlap OR they overlap as CASE 2 above.
// memcopy() would have done this directly.

while (size-- != 0)
{
*p1++ = *p2++;
}
}

return(to);
}





And here is the output


--------------------------------

From (before) = [ABCDEFGHI]
To (before) = [CDEFGHI]


From (after) = [ABABCDEFGHI]
To (after) = [ABCDEFGHI]

--------------------------------

From (before) = [ABCDEFGHI]
To (before) = [α╙ABCDEFGHI]


From (after) = [CDEFGHI]
To (after) = [ABCDEFGHI]

--------------------------------

From (before) = [ABCDEFGHI]
To (before) = [FEδ‼&:F]


From (after) = [ABCDEFGHI]
To (after) = [ABCDEFGHI]

--------------------------------



So then, whats the difference between the implementation of memmove() and memcpy(). Its just that memcpy() will not care if the memories overlap and will either copy from left to right or right to left without checking which method to used depending on the type of the overlap. Also note that the C code proves that the results are the same irrespective of the Endian-ness of the machine.

204 comments:

1 – 200 of 204   Newer›   Newest»
Kai said...

"// Check if there is an overlap or not.
while (p2 != from && --p2 != to);


if (p2 != from)
{
// Overlap detected!"

there's 3 cases of overlap. one "==" case will need to simply return.

and since we only care about which direction of "copy" is performing, we can use
if (from > to) --copy
else /* "equal case should be returned already */
++ copy.

this is a O(1) test, which can replace the origial
"while (p2 != from && --p2 != to);"
O(N) test.

thanks for the great post, these nice little excercised help me get my rusty mind back ;-)

anand gaurav said...

I think this is a better solution :

------------ memmove.c----------


void * memmove(void * dest, const void * src, size_t n) {
char *s1 = (char *)dest;
char *s2 = (char *)src;
if( (s1 > s2) && (s1 < (s2 + n))) {
s1 += n-1;
s2 += n-1;
while( n-- )
*s1-- = *s2--;
} else {
while(n--)
*s1++ = *s2++;
}
return dest;
}

Prasant said...

I find below better one,

void * memcpy(void * dst, void const * src, size_t len)
{
long * plDst = (long *) dst;
long const * plSrc = (long const *) src;

if (!(src & 0xFFFFFFFC) && !(dst & 0xFFFFFFFC))
{
while (len >= 4)
{
*plDst++ = *plSrc++;
len -= 4;
}
}

char * pcDst = (char *) plDst;
char const * pcDst = (char const *) plSrc;

while (len--)
{
*pcDst++ = *pcSrc++;
}

return (dst);
}

Anand Gaurav said...

The above solution by Prashant has bugs in it.

It uses a long and assumes its size to be 4 which not true at all. Its the size of a pointer and so would differ on different machines.

Ideally one should take the size of long or whichever data-type is being used.

In many UNIX/Linux implementations, there's a data structure called "long long" which is either 8 or 16 bytes long. One can use that type too.

DANIEL said...

What about this

void my_memmove(void *p, const void *q, int size) {
char *dest = (char *)p;
const char *src = (const char *)q;
dest += (size-1);
src += (size-1);
while (size--) {
*dest = *src;
dest--;
src--;
}
}

Anonymous said...

to check the overlap just do this,
no?

if (dst <= src || (char *)dst >= ((char *)src + count)) {
/*
* Non-Overlapping Buffers
* copy from lower addresses to higher addresses
*/
while (count--) {
*(char *)dst = *(char *)src;
dst = (char *)dst + 1;
src = (char *)src + 1;
}
}
else {
/*
* Overlapping Buffers
* copy from higher addresses to lower addresses
*/
dst = (char *)dst + count - 1;
src = (char *)src + count - 1;

while (count--) {
*(char *)dst = *(char *)src;
dst = (char *)dst - 1;
src = (char *)src - 1;
}
}

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